A recent meta-analysis evaluated how the use of HME impacts the probability of VAP occurrence in critically ill patients.

The study found that comparison between the use of HME and HH did not reveal any differences in terms of VAP occurrence (OR = 0.998; 95% CI: 0.778-1.281). Together, the ten studies corresponded to a total sample of 1077 and 953 patients in the HME and HH groups, respectively; heterogeneity among the investigations was low (I2 <50%).

Current meta-analysis was not sufficient to definitely exclude an associate between heat and moisture exchangers and VAP, the authors concluded.