There is a correlation between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development, with a more pronounced association in women, CDC researchers found.

In study results published in International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, researchers examined the data of 26,546 women and 19,015 men. Occurrences of childhood abuse, household dysfunction, COPD diagnoses were recorded in addition to age, gender, race, marital status, education, and smoking status.

From their analysis, the investigators noted 12.7% and 4.4% of respondents were diagnosed with asthma and COPD, respectively. Overall, 63.1% of participants claimed they experienced one ACE prior to age 18.