According to an article in the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, a triple freeze approach to pulmonary cryoablation could safely treat malignant lung tumors with low recurrence and complication rates.

In newer studies, local tumor recurrence rates after pulmonary cryoablation range from 3% to 44%—numbers likely influenced by each tumor’s size and distance from major blood vessels.

Researchers cautioned the results also revealed some complications.

Pneumothorax is among the most common complications, the authors wrote, reaching up to  38 percent occurrence in recent trials. Previous thoracic procedures, gender and an increased number of cryoprobes are all potential contributors to the condition, they said, but little research exists to back those theories.