Two case reports demonstrate that inhaled granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) either eradicated or dramatically reduced Mycobacterium abscessus infection, improved clinical outcomes, and was well-tolerated in patients with cystic fibrosis.

The results were published in the European Respiratory Journal in an article titled “Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for Mycobacterium Abscessus in Cystic Fibrosis.”

The case report explored the use of aerosolized GM-CSF for the treatment of M. abscessus, which is a species of multidrug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) that is sometimes present in CF patients. NTM lung infection poses a significant therapeutic challenge as these bacteria allow them to evade the normal killing action of alveolar macrophages, an immune cell that is responsible for killing bacteria in the lungs.