A tuberculosis vaccine commonly used in other parts of the world might reduce a person’s risk of developing lung cancer if given early in childhood, a six-decade-long study reports.

The Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is the only vaccine approved for preventing tuberculosis (TB) — a potentially fatal infectious disease that typically attacks the lungs. Because TB risk is low in the United States, the vaccine isn’t often given to American children, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

But the new study suggests the vaccine may have some positive side effects.

“BCG-vaccinated participants had a significant 2.5-fold lower rate of lung cancer,” said study senior author Dr. Naomi Aronson, director of infectious diseases at Uniformed Services University in Bethesda, Md.