Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopy and asthma.

Some study results suggest that maternal-fetal microbiota transfer may be initiated in utero, with further bacterial transfer occurring during vaginal delivery and breastfeeding.

Birth cohort studies have found that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in the first years of life is associated with the subsequent development of asthma and allergy, including a 2018 prospective study (n=690) linking the composition of the gut microbiome at age 1 year with an increased risk for asthma at age 5 years.