Japanese scientists have discovered high levels of carcinogenic substances in a popular brand of e-cigarettes, leading officials in that country to launch an investigation into the health risks of the devices and re-igniting the debate over their safety.

According to the AFP news agency, research commissioned by Japan’s Health Ministry discovered that the vapor produced by several types of e-cigarette liquid included toxic, cancer-causing agents such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

However, vaping advocates said that the device tested was “a single extreme case out of the many products [they] tested,” adding that the high formaldehyde reading could have been caused by a faulty device.