New research has linked an increased risk of invasive fungal disease in people who smoke, and researchers are calling for greater smoking cessation efforts.

Results of [a systematic review and meta-analysis] showed that there was a greater risk for IFD among smokers. The risk for IFD was higher among participants in the retrospective studies compared with those in the prospective studies, as well as studies that included multivariate adjustments compared to studies with univariate analysis and in studies published after 2002.

“This provides new evidence supporting the implementation of smoking cessation strategies, including tobacco, marijuana, opium and crack cocaine, especially in patients with HIV and patients with hematological malignancies who are already at higher risk for IFD.”