Medical News Today documents some of the most common restrictive lung diseases and how they differ from obstructive lung diseases.

Restrictive lung diseases are chronic lung conditions that limit the ability of a person’s lungs to expand during inhalation. These are often divided into two groups, depending on whether their cause is intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic restrictive lung disorders cause an internal abnormality, usually leading to the stiffening, inflammation, and scarring of the lung tissues. Extrinsic restrictive lung disease is caused by complications with tissues or structures outside of the lungs, including neurological conditions.

Examples of intrinsic restrictive lung disease: pneumonia, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, lung cancers, fibrosis caused by radiation, rheumatoid arthritis, infant and acute respiratory distress syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), systemic lupus.

Types of diseases and conditions involved in extrinsic restrictive lung disease can include: pleural effusions, or the buildup of excessive fluid between tissue layers surrounding the lungs; scoliosis; neuromuscular disease or conditions, such as Lou Gehrig’s disease (ALS), multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy; obesity; myasthenia gravis, or intermittent muscle weakness; malignant tumors; rib damage, especially fractures; ascites, or abdominal swelling connected with liver scarring or cancer; diaphragm paralysis; kyphosis, or hunching of the upper back; diaphragmatic hernia; heart failure.