The overall rate at which women with cystic fibrosis are becoming pregnant dropped slightly in recent years but appears to be rising again to pre-trial levels, a study reports.

The study, “Pregnancy among cystic fibrosis women in the era of CFTR modulators,” appeared in the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. It calls for more research into the impact of these treatments on maternal and fetal health, and on the effectiveness of contraceptives women of childbearing age, noting a “paucity of data” on these topics.

Newer therapies include Kalydeco (ivacaftor) and Orkambi (lumacaftor/ivacaftor) — modulators of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that is defective in CF. Both are helping patients live longer and healthier lives. With adults now comprising more than half of all CF patients in the United States, conversations about family planning, contraception and pregnancy have become commonplace.