Bronchiectasis patients’ risk of developing antibiotic-resistant bacteria increases if they have a chronic kidney disease, have been hospitalized in the past year, or have had previous multidrug-resistant infections, a study reports.

The findings could help doctors identify patients at higher risk of developing hard-to-treat infections, and recommend preventive measures.

Researchers published their study, “Risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens in bronchiectasis exacerbations,” in the journal BMC Infectious Diseases.

Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, or BE, is a chronic lung condition whose hallmarks include frequent flare-ups and recurring infections. This leads to patients often receiving rounds of broad-spectrum antibiotics, increasing their chance of acquiring antibiotic-resistant bacteria.