A review investigated whether there is a potential link between vitamin K deficiency and mechanisms associated with the development of pulmonary disease.

Inflammation of the lungs in COPD is characterized by breathlessness due to restricted air flow. Studies have shown that this inflammation may not be limited to the lungs, but may also impact other organs such as the heart and result in diseases like coronary artery disease.

The associated high frequency of COPD and cardiovascular diseases means that COPD patients are being required to take anticoagulation medication such as vitamin K antagonists, which help prevent blot clots but leads to significant vitamin K deficiency.  The reliance on the long-term use of anticoagulation medication can be a consequence of acute exacerbations which may be caused by pulmonary embolisms (a blockage in the lung typically caused by a blood clot).