A new study published in Plos One contends that vaping is a poor long-term smoking cessation strategy.

More than 850 individuals selected from GfK Global’s KnowledgePanel participated in the observational study and a follow-up interview. Survey data results found that 90% of smokers who vaped at the beginning of the study were still smoking one year later.

While vaping might help promote short-term smoking cessation, the new study’s finding strongly suggests it is an ineffective long-term strategy.