Unlike some diseases, bronchiectasis is treated by controlling its signs and symptoms, not necessarily by treating the disease itself. This is due to the fact that few patients respond to direct treatment and are better served by controlling infection and reducing inflammation to overall improve bronchial hygiene.

Four main categories of interventions serve to treat bronchiectasis: pharmacological intervention, medical devices, surgery, and pulmonary rehabilitation. While research in and refinement of surgery and pulmonary rehabilitation are ongoing, the most cutting-edge advances in treatment are from the pharmacological and medical device fields.