An Edmunds news report indicates that Volkswagen’s diesel-emissions scandal will contribute to about 60 premature deaths in the US as a result of excess pollution.

The German automaker’s use of rigged software to evade emissions standards in more than 482,000 diesel cars in the U.S. goes beyond economic considerations and will have significant effects on public health, the study found.

Excess emissions from Volkswagen’s so-called “defeat devices” will cause around 60 people in the U.S. to die 10 to 20 years prematurely, researchers said. It will also contribute directly to 31 cases of chronic bronchitis and 34 hospital admissions involving respiratory and cardiac conditions.

In addition, people will experience about 120,000 minor restricted-activity days, including work absences and around 210,000 lower-respiratory symptom days.

The study projects VW’s excess emissions will generate $450 million in health expenses and other social costs.

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